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1 / 15
A patient presents with a history of abdominal distention and elevated liver function tests. Sonographic evaluation of the right upper quadrantdemonstrated a negative Murphy sign. Which of the following peritoneal spaces demonstrate a fluid collection?
Ascites is identified superior to the liver and inferior to the diaphragm consistent with the rightsubphrenic space. Fluid is also demonstrated inferior to the gallbladder in the subhepatic space
2 / 15
The sonographer’s technical impression of the gallbladder should state:
The presence of a thick hyperechoic gallbladder wall surrounded by benign free fluid is most consistent with a noninflammatory condition of the gallbladder.
3 / 15
Which of the following structures separates the caudate lobe from the left lobe of the liver?
The ligamentum venosum separates the caudate lobe from the left lobe of the liver. The falciform ligament divides the subphrenic space. The main lobar fissure is considered a boundary between the left and right hepatic lobes.
4 / 15
A questionable mass is identified in the anterior portion of the right lobe of the liver. Which of the following structures border this region?
The anterior right hepatic lobe is bordered by the middle and right hepatic veins. The middle hepatic vein separates the left medial lobe from the right anterior lobe. The right hepatic vein separates the anterior and posterior right lobes.
5 / 15
A 72-year-old patient presents with a history of painless gross hematuria. An immobile, hypervascular mass is outlined by the calipers. Based on this clinical history the solid mass is most likely a bladder:
An immobile hypervascular solid bladder mass in an elderly patient with a history of painless gross hematuria is most suspicious for bladder carcinoma. Sludge is gravity dependent with patient position change
6 / 15
A mass displacing the renal calyces is documented on a recent intravenous pyelogram. A sonogram over this area demonstrates a smooth circularanechoic renal mass. This mass is most suspicious for a(n):
A smooth anechoic renal mass is most likely a simple cyst. An extrarenal pelvis would not displace the renal calyces.
7 / 15
When hydronephrosis is encountered, the sonographer should evaluate the urinary bladder for evidence of a(n):
The urinary bladder should be evaluated for evidence of a ureter or bladder outlet obstruction when hydronephrosis is identified. A neoplasm, calculus, or stricture of the distal ureter or urethra may cause the obstruction.
8 / 15
Which of the following structures is most likely located adjacent to an omental cyst?
Omental cysts generally develop adjacent to the stomach or lesser sac.
9 / 15
To aid in demonstrating posterior acoustic shadowing, the sonographer should:
Increasing axial resolution by increasing the transducer frequency may aid in the demonstration ofposterior acoustic shadowing.
10 / 15
A patient presents with a mass in the lateral aspect of the neck. An anechoic structure is demonstrated just beneath the jawline. Which of the following cystic structures is most likely identified?
A superficial cystic mass located just beneath the angle of the mandible is most likely a brachial cleft cyst.
11 / 15
An asymptomatic 1-month-old infant presents with a history of jaundice. The arrow is pointing to the gallbladder. A large avascular structure is identified in the porta hepatis. Based on this clinical history, the sonogram most likely demonstrates which of the following?
An avascular anechoic structure is located anterior to the main portal vein. With a history of jaundice, choledochal cyst is the most likely diagnosis. Bilomas are generally associated with trauma surgery, or gallbladder disease. A hepatic cyst is not likely in an infant and generally not the source of jaundice.
12 / 15
Extension of pancreatic inflammation into the surrounding tissues is termed a(n):
A phlegmon is associated with acute pancreatitis and is defined as an extension of pancreatic inflammation into the peripancreatic tissues.
13 / 15
The inferior vena cava is considered enlarged after the diameter exceeds:
The normal inferior vena cava generally measures less than 2.5 cm in diameter. The inferior vena cava is considered dilated after the diameter exceeds 3.7 cm.
14 / 15
Which of the following organs is associated with an elevation of aldosterone?
Levels of aldosterone are most commonly associated with abnormalities of the adrenal gland(s).
15 / 15
Which of the following patient positions is typically used during a thoracentesis?
A thoracentesis is typically performed with the patient in a sitting position, slightly bent forward atthe waist, with the arms leaning on a table.
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